Benchmarks

AgeFine MotorGross MotorCognitiveCommunication
0-3 monthsSucking, rooting, graspingLift head while on belly, hold head up when supportedComforted by an adult, responds positively to touch, responds to facial expressionsCrying, babbling, and body movements
3-6 monthsReach, grasp, objects to mouth, claps handsRoll over, pull forward on tummyResponds to name, smiles spontaneously, laughExchange and repeat same sounds
6-9 monthsTransfers objects between handsCrawl, sit independentlyRespond to language, express emotion, differentiates strangers from known peopleBabble repetitively, wave bye, uses sound and body language to express interest
9-12 monthsRoll ball, grasp with thumb and pointer finger, drop and pick up objectsStand, walk with assistanceMimic actions, shows anxiety when caregiver leaves, respond to simple directionsFirst few words, understands no
12-24 monthsPut things on pegs, scribble, turn pagesWalk without aid, walk backwards, go up and down stairsRecognize self in pictures or mirror, imitate adult behaviorUses 50 words, communicates with purpose, beginning to combine words, understands 200-300 words
24-36 monthsString beads, hold crayon correctly, make dots and lines, cuts with pediatric scissorsRun, jump, walk on tiptoe occasionally, kick ball forwardParallel play, help dress and undress, increased fear and anxietyUses 200-300 words, combines 2 word utterances consistently, understands and completes simple directions, speech is 50% intelligible
36-48 monthsMold clay or dough, draw circlesBalance on one foot easily, walk on a line, ride tricycleFollow directions, share toys, take turns, interest in make believe, organize materials75% intelligible speech, talks in phrases and simple sentences, asking and answering simple questions
48-60 monthsUse typical scissors, cut a line, print letters, copy shapesUse typical scissors, cut a line, print letters, copy shapesCompare self to others, develop friendships, count, know addressTalks in 90% intelligible sentences, beginning to combine sentences using “and”, retells simple stories with characters, setting, problem, actions, feeling, and endings